To perform a normal throw, press B+C when near the opponent. There are 3 different types of normal throws: forward throw, back throw, and air throw.
To perform a forward throw, press neutral or forward +B+C while standing on the ground.
To perform a back throw, press back + B+C while standing on the ground.
To perform an air throw press B+C while airborne.
Command throws are a special type of throw that are performed as a special input such as Tager's Tager Buster and Hazama's Bloody Fangs. These types of throws are special in that they can not be escaped normally. If you use a command throw vs the enemy when they are in hitstun or blockstun, a purple exclamation mark will appear and they can escape it. See the Throw Break section for more details.
Throw + Throw or Throw + Attack situations
Usually, when both players' attacks collide at the same time, a "trade" occurs, but if both players time their throws at the same time, or one attacks right when the other throws, the game follows this rule: the character that was doing the hitting (i.e. the attacker) always loses the throw + throw / throw + attack "trade" situation.
Example: consider an attacker using a pressure string with a 7F link between two attacks. If the defender sneaks in an attack that actives on its 7th frame, then a trade occurs; if the defender throws, however, then his throw will take priority. This also works for a command throw. However, if the attacker attempts to use a throw, and the defender times a throw so that the throws register at the same time, the game will interpret the situation as: defender throws -> attacker throw breaks.
When thrown an exclamation mark will appear. When that happens, you can press B+C to escape the throw. This action is known as "breaking throws".
Under normal conditions, you will see 1 green exclamation mark and have a 13 frame window to break the throw.
If you throw them when they are in block stun or hit stun (plus 6 frames afterwards on either), you will see 2 purple exclamation marks, and you have a 27 frame window to break the throw.
Most regular throws have a start-up of 7, so after forcing an opponent to block a 0-frame advantage attack, you technically have 1F advantage to make a green throw.
This happens when you are thrown as a counter. For example, getting thrown out of an attack with a lot of startup will not let you attempt a throw break. The game will show a big red X when you are thrown and the words "Throw Counter" when this happens.
Throw Reject Miss
If you input your throw break before you are thrown, the game will show big red X when you are thrown and the words "Throw Reject Miss" will appear when this happens.
Throw Reject Miss occurs if you're thrown between 4-30 frames AFTER inputting your throw break attempt. However, if you "whiff" your throw break and the regular throw animation/motion comes out, then only frames 17-30 (after the throw break input) will be the "Throw Reject Miss".
In addition, pushing B and C at the same time in other situations (e.g. A+B+C for executing an RC; teching using B+C; etc.) will also cause a Throw Reject Miss state.
Tricking the opponent into attempting a throw break early, then actually throwing them is a common offensive technique in high-level play.
Barrier Throw Break: 4+A+B+C or 1+A+B+C
If the opponent tries to throw you and you time this input correctly, you'll get a throw break; if the opponent tries to hit you, then you'll just use your barrier. However, using this method, a throw break will only work up to 3F before being thrown. The trick is to input it somewhat late, but nevertheless, if the opponent delays his throw timing, this, too, will put you into a Throw Reject Miss state.